Please see the presentation below.
As we approach the festive season, many of us will be eating to our heart's content and will not be too mindful of what and how much we eat. Food has a way of bringing us together to share, and to reunite. Let us look briefly on how we can incorporate healthy eating into our daily lives, as we make our new year's resolution for 2016.
Please see the presentation below.
Quality control is a process employed to ensure a certain level of quality in a product or service. It may include whatever actions an establishment deems necessary to provide for the control and verification of certain characteristics of a product or service. The basic goal of quality control is to ensure that the products, services, or processes provided meet specific requirements and are dependable, satisfactory, and fiscally sound.
Essentially, quality control involves the examination of a product, service, or process for certain minimum levels of quality. Quality control can cover not just products, services, and processes, but also people. Employees are an important part of any establishment. If a company has employees that do not have adequate skills or training, have trouble understanding directions, or are misinformed, quality may be severely diminished. When quality control is considered in terms of human beings, it concerns correctable issues. However, it should not be confused with human resource issues.
In a food establishment sensory evaluation of foods is very important to ensure good quality and consistency are maintained. Have you ever wondered what comes into play whne you taste a food or drink and try to evaluate it?
Sensory evaluation is a scientific discipline used to evoke, measure, analyze and interpret reactions to the characteristics of foods and materials as they are perceived by the senses. It is the conscious effort to identify and judge different sensations and components in an object, be it a piece of food, a beverage, or a perfume.
Sensory evaluation encompasses all of the senses. It takes into account several different disciplines but emphasizes the behavioural basis of perception. It involves the measurement and evaluation of sensory properties of food and other materials. In short, sensory evaluation is a very "Gestalt" approach to product assessment.
Sensory scientists look at eight distinct, although interrelated, senses that are important in measuring and evaluating foods:
West and Woods Introduction to Food Service
Payne- Palacio, J., Theis, M. (2001). (9th ed). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice hall.
HIV has emerged from an unknown virus, to a pandemic of astronomical proportions. Millions of people worldwide have already succumbed to this virus and millions more lives have been disrupted because of the pain and suffering of loved ones.
Through much research, advances in medicne and continued support, many persons living with HIV/AIDS are now better able to manage the disease and live normal lives. Nutritional management of HIV/AIDS is one of the important elements involved in leading a healthy normal life, so let us look at how this can be achieved.
Let us look briefly at some of the nutritional needs involved when one undergoes a major injury such as extensive burns, surgery or even Gunshot wounds. Many times nutrition is the last thing on our minds when a loved one gets seriously injured, but it plays a vital role in the recovery process.
Definition of terms you may have heard in relation to nutrition and major injuries
Sepsis – a serious medical condition characterized by whole body inflammatory state & the presence of a known or suspected infection (SIRS)
Trauma – any physical damage to the body caused by violence or accident or fracture, An emotional wound or shock often having long lasting effects.
Amino Acid – the chemical units or building blocks of the body that make up protein
Essential Amino Acid – amino acids that must be obtained from the diet
Branched Chain Amino Acids – a group of 3 essential amino acids important in supporting muscle growth & repair (leucine, isoleucine and valine)
The Body’s Nutritional Needs During Injury
The body needs a certain amount of nutrients to maintain a constant, healthy state, this need is determined by the basal metabolic rate (BMR- the amount of energy expressed in calories that a person needs to keep the body functioning at rest).
Any external or internal trauma raises the metabolic rate, and greater amounts of oxygen and nutrients are required to supply enough fuel and amino acids for repair and recovery.
Energy expenditure may rise by 10 – 50% to support the intense metabolic workload (Omerbegovic M et al 2003)
Protein and amino acid requirements increase to:
Positive Nutritional Balance
A positive nutritional balance is reflected:
Population studies indicate that 9 – 44% of people with wounds and surgical trauma are malnourished (Reid CL 2004)
The condition often goes unrecognized and untreated in hospitals, biologically, it is difficult to achieve usual levels of nutrition after major trauma because many important nutrients are channelled into the healing effort. Whereas good nutrition facilitates healing, malnutrition delays, inhibits and complicates the process (Williams and Leaper 2000). Nutritional support is fundamental to patient care and needs vary on an individual patient basis.
Many trauma patients suffer from
Effects of Trauma on Metabolism
During trauma, proteins, including muscle mass, are broken down to yield as much as 30% of caloric needs
Even when nutrients are supplemented, proteins will be utilized to provide 20 – 25% of caloric needs.
It is critical that trauma patients maintain an adequate supply of protein and calories to protect their lean muscle mass and supply their healing body with necessary nutrients.
There are three distict types of muscle fibre, type I which are slow twitch, type IIa and type IIb which are fast twitch. The percentage of each varies from person to person, and from one muscle to another in the same person. There is a fourth type of muscle fibre - type IIc is also a fast twitch fibre that results from the fusion of type IIb with surrounding satelite cells.
Activities That Use the Different Types of Muscle Fibres
A type of activity that primarily utilizes type one muscle fibers is marathon running. These types of muscle fibers are characterized as being the slow twitch oxidative muscle fibers. They contract slowly, they have the highest tolerance to fatigue as compared to the other types of muscle fibers, and their main fuel source tends to be triglycerides. As such, the best way to train this type of muscle fiber would be with low intensity endurance type exercises.
The typical body type of individuals who regularly perform this type of activity is the ectomorphic or slim, linear body type. In order to affect the greatest number of those muscle fibers, one would need to train with higher reps, shorter rest periods and higher volume. This is because they take longer to fatigue, they recover quickly and they require more work to maximize growth.
Most persons are conscious about their health and may desire to start an exercise programme to assist with weight loss. You may sign up for the gym but when you get there you become overwhelmed with the different equipment and how to actually start using them. It is important to have a little understanding about the equipment you use for exercise so that you can get much more out of your efforts. In genereal there are four technologies of training equipment, Let us review them and look at the advantages and disadvantages.
The four technologies of training equipment are:
Constant resistance devices (free weights) are devices where the weights never change. This means the weight/resistance does not increase or decrease during the course of exercise. For example a dumbbell or barbell have the same weight no matter how many times you lift them.
Free weights tend to incorporate more muscles in the execution of the moves. Because they are free of constraints offered by cables or machines, the muscles can contract through a more complete ROM with assistance from other stabilizing muscle groups. In essence, a seated overhead press with dumbbells, although targeting the shoulder muscles, will solicit help from smaller muscle group, thus, working more muscles at one time. Free weights are also more functional, meaning they simulate more daily or athletic movements.
This article will look at exercise and youth, it has reviewed several articles which points to the benefits and risks of exercise and physical activity. Much can be deciphered from review of these articles as more care givers and stakeholders become concerned in the increase in childhood obesity. Some government bodies have taken steps towards curbing this increase through the implementation of policies, and sports and fitness experts have been developing programmes that are specific for children. Here in the Cayman Islands, ‘Fitness Connection’ a fitness/aquatic facility has a range of programmes for children. They even have a swimming programme for babies from 3 months and upward, where parents swim with their youngsters.
Most exercise and conditioning, when executed safely and correctly, delivers many benefits to today’s youth. However, there are also risks associated with training the youth population. These risks can all be avoided by following some basic guidelines, and a training plan tailored to the child or adolescent.
Nutrients are substances obtained from foods
They provide nourishment and assist the body in it’s growth and development.
The Nutrients are: Proteins, carbohydrates, fat, minerals, vitamins and water.
Functions of the nutrients:
In 2009 I conducted a short four week study on 'The Nutritional Knowledge, Attitude & Practice of Gym “Gymnasium” Attendees in the town of Savanna-la-mar (Westmorland Jamaica)', while on Internship. It would be interesting to reapeat the study now and compare the findings between then and now.
My research question was:
How do persons who attend gyms view the importance of nutrition in achieving their objectives?
And my hypothesis, 'Persons who attend gymnasiums have little knowledge of good nutrition and usually use fad diets to help effect weight loss'.
A fad weight loss diet is any diet that promises fast weight loss without a scientific basis. These diets often eliminate entire food groups and as a result do not provide a wide range of important nutrients ( http://daa.asn.au/for-the-public/smart-eating-for-you/nutrition-a-z/fad-diets/ )
Here is part of the introduction from the study:
Healthy eating is complimentary to physical activity in maintaining a lean weight, fitness, strength and good health. In fact eating correctly can be crucial to sports performance, body building or simple daily exercise routines. The percentage of macronutrients can vary for individuals depending on their goals/objectives. The Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for the Caribbean lists the acceptable macronutrient guideline distribution to range as follows;
Fad diets also become popular because many of them do work for a short time, and in many cases occur because when one stops eating certain types of food or eat special combinations of foods, they are getting fewer calories than they normally would. They are also paying more attention to what is being eaten, however, it is likely that much of the weight being lost is from water and lean muscle and not from fat. Also, most people are not able to keep up with the demands of a diet that strictly limits their food choices or requires them to eat the same foods over and over again. Because of this they end up going back to their usual eating habits, hence gaining the weight they have lost.